19. Water Footprint

  1. Nikos Avlonas Founder and President1 and
  2. George P. Nassos Principal2

Published Online: 1 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118787472.ch19

Practical Sustainability Strategies: How to Gain a Competitive Advantage

Practical Sustainability Strategies: How to Gain a Competitive Advantage

How to Cite

Avlonas, N. and Nassos, G. P. (2013) Water Footprint, in Practical Sustainability Strategies: How to Gain a Competitive Advantage, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ. doi: 10.1002/9781118787472.ch19

Author Information

  1. 1

    Center for Sustainability & Excellence

  2. 2

    George P. Nassos & Associates, Inc.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 NOV 2013
  2. Published Print: 20 NOV 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118250440

Online ISBN: 9781118787472



  • carbon footprint;
  • Dole Food Company;
  • life cycle assessment (LCA);
  • SABMiller;
  • water footprint


The main objective of assessing the water footprint of goods is to analyze how their production is affecting water resources and how these processes can be more sustainable. To agree on both the purposes of Water Resources Management and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the steps usually undertaken for the calculation of the water footprint should be approached differently in a LCA perspective. This chapter talks about two case studies of SABMiller's subsidiaries in South Africa and in Czech Republic, which are easily comparable, thanks to the standardized methodology of measuring the water footprint. The Dole Food Company reduced the use of water consumed during the packing process of bananas by implementing various water recycling systems. Both water footprint and carbon footprint are two useful tools for the quantification of the emission or consumption of the respective resources, as well as of the improvement that they can lead during their assessment.