3. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Materials

  1. Virendra S. Bisaria and
  2. Akihiko Kondo
  1. Karthik Rajendran and
  2. Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

Published Online: 4 APR 2014

DOI: 10.1002/9781118845394.ch3

Bioprocessing of Renewable Resources to Commodity Bioproducts

Bioprocessing of Renewable Resources to Commodity Bioproducts

How to Cite

Rajendran, K. and Taherzadeh, M. J. (2014) Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Materials, in Bioprocessing of Renewable Resources to Commodity Bioproducts (eds V. S. Bisaria and A. Kondo), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118845394.ch3

Author Information

  1. School of Engineering, University of Borås, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 APR 2014
  2. Published Print: 7 APR 2014

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118175835

Online ISBN: 9781118845394



  • Lignocelluloses;
  • pretreatment;
  • biomass recalcitrance;
  • plant cell wall


Lignocelluloses are structural materials in plants expected to withstand physical, chemical, and biological degradation. Nonetheless, biomass, with their content of approximately 70% sugar polymers is attractive materials for production of bioproducts. The purpose of lignocelluloses in nature and their application as sugar sources is hence contrasting to each other. The structure of lignocelluloses and their recalcitrance are matters lifted early in this chapter in order to facilitate the understanding of the factors in need of attention, involving their pretreatment. This discussion is followed by brief descriptions of physical pretreatments, that is, milling, irradiation, steaming, etc., physicochemical methods, that is, explosions with steam, ammonia, CO2, and SO2, chemical pretreatments by alkali, acids, gases, oxidizing agents, and organosolvs, and biological pretreatments by fungi and their enzymes. The different methods for pretreatment of lignocelluloses are compared in terms of their efficiency and from an economic point of view.