3. Structural Equations, Graphs and Interventions

  1. Carlo Berzuini,
  2. Philip Dawid and
  3. Luisa Bernardinelli
  1. Ilya Shpitser

Published Online: 25 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781119945710.ch3

Causality: Statistical Perspectives and Applications

Causality: Statistical Perspectives and Applications

How to Cite

Shpitser, I. (2012) Structural Equations, Graphs and Interventions, in Causality: Statistical Perspectives and Applications (eds C. Berzuini, P. Dawid and L. Bernardinelli), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119945710.ch3

Editor Information

  1. Statistical Laboratory, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Author Information

  1. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 25 JUN 2012
  2. Published Print: 13 JUL 2012

Book Series:

  1. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics

Book Series Editors:

  1. Walter A. Shewhart and
  2. Samuel S. Wilks

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470665565

Online ISBN: 9781119945710



  • structural equations, graphs and interventions;
  • causality, fundamental to understanding of the natural world;
  • NPSEM, data-generating mechanism for encoding causation;
  • NPSEM formalism and potential outcome formalism;
  • NPSEMs framework, graph theory and probability theory;
  • the Markovian model, causal diagram representation of NPSEM;
  • latent variables, in causal inference problems;
  • semi-Markovian models and “bow arc graph”;
  • NPSEMs and hypothetical worlds, counterfactual sharing unobservable variables;
  • NPSEMs in outcomes, causal diagram making causal assumption explicit


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Structural equations, graphs, and interventions

  • References