21. Folate

  1. John W. Erdman Jr. PhD3,
  2. Ian A. Macdonald PhD4 and
  3. Steven H. Zeisel MD, PhD5
  1. Lynn B. Bailey PhD1 and
  2. Marie A. Caudill PhD, RD2

Published Online: 18 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781119946045.ch21

Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Tenth Edition

Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Tenth Edition

How to Cite

Bailey, L. B. and Caudill, M. A. (2012) Folate, in Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Tenth Edition (eds J. W. Erdman, I. A. Macdonald and S. H. Zeisel), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119946045.ch21

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Urbana, Illinois, USA

  2. 4

    Nottingham, England

  3. 5

    UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 500 Laureate Way, Rm 2218, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, 273 Dawson Hall, Athens, GA 30602, USA

  2. 2

    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, 228 Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 JUN 2012
  2. Published Print: 20 JUL 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470959176

Online ISBN: 9781119946045



  • folate;
  • folate intake recommendations and differences in folate bioavailability;
  • folate mediated 1-C metabolism;
  • membrane transport of folates into intestinal cells, by PCFT;
  • folic acid first reduced to DHF, and to THF by DHF reductase;
  • RFC, bi-directional transmembrane protein, and saturability;
  • folate bioavailability, and overall efficiency of utilization;
  • cytosolic folate-mediated 1-C metabolism, three biosynthetic pathways;
  • cytosolic one-carbon metabolism regulation


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Summary

  • Chemistry and Sources

  • Physiology and Metabolism

  • Biochemical Functions

  • Regulation of Cytosolic One-Carbon Metabolism

  • Genetic Polymorphisms

  • Severe Clinical Deficiency, Pregnancy Complications, Fetal Growth

  • Drug and Alcohol Impairment of Folate Metabolism

  • Recommended and Estimated Folate/Folic Acid Intakes in the US and the Impact of Fortification

  • Analytical Methods

  • Status Assessment

  • Future Directions

  • Safety of Folic Acid