14. Portal Hypertension: Nonsurgical and Surgical Management

  1. Eugene R. Schiff MD, MACP, FRCP3,
  2. Willis C. Maddrey MD, MACP, FRCP4 and
  3. Michael F. Sorrell MD, FACP5
  1. Hitoshi Maruyama MD, PhD1 and
  2. Arun J. Sanyal MD2

Published Online: 31 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781119950509.ch14

Schiff's Diseases of the Liver, Eleventh Edition

Schiff's Diseases of the Liver, Eleventh Edition

How to Cite

Maruyama, H. and Sanyal, A. J. (2011) Portal Hypertension: Nonsurgical and Surgical Management, in Schiff's Diseases of the Liver, Eleventh Edition (eds E. R. Schiff, W. C. Maddrey and M. F. Sorrell), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119950509.ch14

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Center for Liver Diseases and Schiff Liver Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA

  2. 4

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

  3. 5

    University of Nebraska College of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan

  2. 2

    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 31 OCT 2011
  2. Published Print: 9 DEC 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470654682

Online ISBN: 9781119950509



  • Portal hypertension;
  • nonsurgical management;
  • surgical management;
  • liver;
  • cirrhosis;
  • gastroesophageal varices;
  • gastrointestinal bleeding;
  • portal hypertensive gastropathy;
  • pharmacological treatment;
  • endoscopy;
  • intervention


Portal hypertension is defined as an increase in the pressure gradient between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava of over 5 mmHg. It causes bleeding from gastroesophageal varices and/or portal hypertensive gastropathy, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. These symptoms are the principal complications of cirrhosis, and affect the prognosis of the patients. The control of portal hypertension and the treatment of its complications are the cornerstones of management of cirrhosis. The optimal management of portal hypertension requires a clear understanding of its anatomic and physiological basis, natural history, and utility of specific therapies at specific stages in the clinical course of portal hypertension. This chapter provides a guide to nonsurgical and surgical management of portal hypertension.