16. Pulmonary Manifestations of Liver Disease

  1. Eugene R. Schiff MD, MACP, FRCP2,
  2. Willis C. Maddrey MD, MACP, FRCP3 and
  3. Michael F. Sorrell MD, FACP4
  1. Rajan Kochar MD, MPH and
  2. Michael B. Fallon MD

Published Online: 31 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781119950509.ch16

Schiff's Diseases of the Liver, Eleventh Edition

Schiff's Diseases of the Liver, Eleventh Edition

How to Cite

Kochar, R. and Fallon, M. B. (2011) Pulmonary Manifestations of Liver Disease, in Schiff's Diseases of the Liver, Eleventh Edition (eds E. R. Schiff, W. C. Maddrey and M. F. Sorrell), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119950509.ch16

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Center for Liver Diseases and Schiff Liver Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA

  2. 3

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

  3. 4

    University of Nebraska College of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA

Author Information

  1. Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 31 OCT 2011
  2. Published Print: 9 DEC 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470654682

Online ISBN: 9781119950509



  • Hepatopulmonary syndrome;
  • portopulmonary hypertension;
  • pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease;
  • intrapulmonary vasodilatation;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • intrapulmonary shunting;
  • contrast echocardiography;
  • liver transplantation


Pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease comprise two distinct clinical entities, hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS: microvascular dilatation and angiogenesis) and portopulmonary hypertension (POPH: vasoconstriction and remodeling in resistance vessels). These complications occur in similar pathophysiologic environments and may share pathogenic mechanisms. HPS is found in 15–30% of patients with cirrhosis and its presence increases mortality and the risks of liver transplantation, particularly when hypoxemia is present. No medical therapies are available, although liver transplantation is effective in reversing the syndrome. There are no reliable clinical predictors for HPS and no established screening guidelines. However, pulse oximetry-based screening protocols are useful for identifying hypoxemic patients and targeting subsequent evaluation for HPS. POPH is found in 4–8% of patients undergoing liver transplantation evaluation and the presence of moderate to severe disease significantly increases perioperative transplant mortality. Transthoracic echocardiography is recommended for screening and right heart catheterization is required to establish the diagnosis. Medical therapies are increasingly effective in improving pulmonary vascular hemodynamics in POPH and may result in better perioperative outcomes. However, whether liver transplantation itself will consistently improve or reverse underlying POPH remains undefined.