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Carbides: Transition-Metal Solid-State Chemistry

  1. Walter Lengauer

Published Online: 17 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781119951438.eibc0032.pub2

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Lengauer, W. 2012. Carbides: Transition-Metal Solid-State Chemistry . Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 DEC 2012


Basic properties and use of transition-metal carbides and carbonitrides are presented in this article. Starting from crystal chemistry, bonding, and preparation, the article also briefly discusses analytical chemistry of chemical and physical carbon analysis as well as thermodynamics. Phase diagrams of groups 4, 5, and 6 transition metals with carbon are presented, together with the most important transition-metal carbonitride systems Ti[BOND] C[BOND]N. A large part is devoted to the solid-state properties because they make carbides and carbonitrides interesting materials for applications. The presentation of these properties includes hardness, thermal properties, conductivities, carbon diffusivity, and elastic properties. Some ternary and quaternary carbonitrides are also discussed. Several of these properties are given as a function of temperature and composition. A variety of examples for bulk application of carbides in modern hardmetal and cermet types are included, such as printed circuit board drills, stone drills, and drills for metal machining with cooling channels, functionally graded surfaces of hardmetals for cutting and milling, and ultra-hardmetals for water jet cutting nozzles. Layers and diffusion barriers are only briefly addressed.


  • structure solid-state properties;
  • analysis;
  • phase diagrams;
  • hardmetal;
  • application tools