Published Online: 15 DEC 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry
How to Cite
Fouassier, C. 2011. Luminescence. Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry.
- Published Online: 15 DEC 2011
This chapter is devoted to the luminescence of inorganic compounds. Luminescence characteristics are strongly host-dependent. This is illustrated by various examples of the influence of covalency, crystal field, phonon energies, and structural features. The chapter is organized as follows.
Section 2 describes the fundamentals of luminescence: probability of electronic transitions, shape of emission bands, quantum efficiency, energy transfer, and factors governing the position of the emitting level (nephelauxetic effect and crystal field splitting).
Section 3 reviews the main families of luminescent ions: transition metal ions, lanthanide ions, and s2 ions. The various types of electronic transitions responsible for the luminescence of transition and lanthanide ions are presented: nd → nd, (n + 1)s → nd, and charge transfer (CT) transitions for the former, 4f → 4f, 5d → 4f, and CT transitions for the latter. Data are given on the luminescence wavelength range, excited-state lifetimes, thermal stability, and concentration quenching.
Section 4 deals with donor-acceptor transitions in ZnS.
Section 5 presents the luminescence mechanisms for excitation through the host lattice. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), electron beam, X-ray, and γ-ray excitation are considered. The most efficient luminescent materials are given for the various types of excitation.
Section 6 deals with electroluminescent materials.