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Oxides: Solid-State Chemistry

  1. William H. McCarroll1,
  2. Kandalam V. Ramanujachary2

Published Online: 15 DEC 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781119951438.eibc0161

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

McCarroll, W. H. and Ramanujachary, K. V. 2011. Oxides: Solid-State Chemistry. Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ, USA

  2. 2

    Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2011


This article is an overview of the solid-state chemistry of oxides. It starts with a brief description of the periodic trends associated with compounds of oxygen and is followed by a discussion of the principle of the closest packing of spheres that can be used to describe ionic structures. An in depth description of several structure types, important in solid-state oxide chemistry, follows, and covers the important binary structures as well as several ternary structures including the Perovskite, Spinel, Garnet, Pyrochlore, and Scheelite structures.

Selected special topics in solid-state oxide chemistry include a discussion of crystallographic shear structures, defect oxides, and tungsten and molybdenum bronzes, intergrowth structures of which the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 is an example. The importance of structure-property relations in oxides is illustrated by a discussion of metal–metal bonds in oxides, electronic conduction in a variety of oxides, and the catalytic properties of defect scheelites.

A lengthy discussion is devoted to the various means used by solid-state chemists to synthesize oxides not only as bulk polycrystalline phases but as single crystals and thin films as well that are so important to electronic applications. The article concludes with a discussion of several important practical applications of oxides including magnetic oxides, oxide sensors, luminescent materials, ferroelectrics, CMR oxides, optical materials, ceramics, and refractory materials as well as a brief overview of other important uses.

Because this is a survey article, in depth discussion of many properties of oxides is not possible. However, many of these topics are covered in depth in other parts of the Encyclopedia and the reader will find the cross references helpful. A substantial list of references also provides a gateway to the solid-state literature.


  • oxides;
  • crystal structure;
  • properties;
  • uses;
  • electronic properties;
  • applications;
  • synthesis;
  • solids;
  • materials