Hard & Soft Acids and Bases
Published Online: 15 DEC 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry
How to Cite
Martin, R. B. 2011. Hard & Soft Acids and Bases. Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. .
- Published Online: 15 DEC 2011
Practical metal ion hardness–softness scales applicable to aqueous solutions and corresponding to what most chemists probably imply when they use the terms hardness and softness are presented. The scales are derived from experimentally determined log stability constant differences for substitution reactions of one ligand for another on a metal ion. Correlations between scales for different ligand systems are high but not perfect. In an analogous ligand scale, all oxygen donors are hard and all nitrogen donors borderline. The principle of hard and soft acids and bases finds its most consistent application, not in direct stability constant comparisons, but rather in log stability constant differences of appropriate substitution reactions.
- hard and soft acids and bases