Standard Article

Supramolecular Materials: Assemblies Based on Square-Complexation

  1. Stuart L. James

Published Online: 15 DEC 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781119951438.eibc0344

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

James, S. L. 2011. Supramolecular Materials: Assemblies Based on Square-Complexation. Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2011

Abstract

Square complexation of metal ions has become a remarkably useful construction motif for the self-assembly of discrete nanoscopic structures and infinite frameworks. This article covers developments in the area since 2004. Interesting new aspects of self-assembly methodology include solvent and anion dependence, use of three-coordinate centers, photolabilization, kinetically controlled assembly, heteroligand structures, and the first very large mesoscopic structures (>20 nm). Also, known types of large self-assembled cages, mainly based on palladium(II) and platinum(II) have been developed as protective reaction nanovessels in which to observe unusual, even unprecedented, chemistry. Internal and external functionalization of known structure types is leading to rich internal and external supramolecular chemistry. For infinite frameworks, square complexation, not only at single metal ions but also dimetallic units, typified by the dimetal-tetracarboxylate paddle-wheel motif, has led to a family of structurally versatile and functionalizable microporous pillared-layer frameworks. In common with all coordination framework types, those based on square complexation are being increasingly studied with regard to their dynamics, sorption behavior, and catalysis.

Keywords:

  • square planar;
  • cage;
  • macrocycle;
  • framework;
  • porous;
  • microporous;
  • nanoporous;
  • nanovessel;
  • coordination;
  • material;
  • palladium;
  • platinum;
  • rhodium;
  • copper;
  • zinc