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Divalent Lanthanides in Solution

  1. Andrew W.G. Platt

Published Online: 23 SEP 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781119951438.eibc2237

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Platt, A. W. 2013. Divalent Lanthanides in Solution. Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. 1–6.

Author Information

  1. Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 23 SEP 2013


The formation and stability of “traditional” divalent ions, Eu2+, Yb2+, and Sm2+ are outlined. The ease of preparation of other Ln2+ is discussed in relation to calculated reduction potentials in aqueous acidic solution. The methods of preparation of Ln2+ are detailed as are recent advances in the stabilization of europium(II) with cryptands. The use of non-aqueous solvents has allowed a considerable increase in the range of lanthanide metals available in the +2 oxidations state and the production of inorganic complexes of Tm, Dy, and Nd with THF and ethers outlined. Organometallic complexes particularly with bulky cyclopentadiene type ligands allow the preparation of a variety of Cp2Ln complexes with Ln = La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tm, Yb. Many of these reduce N2. New methods of producing organometallic Ln(II) complexes by steric reduction and base-induced reduction are outlined.


  • divalent state;
  • aqueous solution;
  • non aqueous solution;
  • redox potentials;
  • organometallics;
  • sterically induced reduction