Divalent Lanthanides in Solution
Published Online: 23 SEP 2013
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry
How to Cite
Platt, A. W. 2013. Divalent Lanthanides in Solution. Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. 1–6.
- Published Online: 23 SEP 2013
The formation and stability of “traditional” divalent ions, Eu2+, Yb2+, and Sm2+ are outlined. The ease of preparation of other Ln2+ is discussed in relation to calculated reduction potentials in aqueous acidic solution. The methods of preparation of Ln2+ are detailed as are recent advances in the stabilization of europium(II) with cryptands. The use of non-aqueous solvents has allowed a considerable increase in the range of lanthanide metals available in the +2 oxidations state and the production of inorganic complexes of Tm, Dy, and Nd with THF and ethers outlined. Organometallic complexes particularly with bulky cyclopentadiene type ligands allow the preparation of a variety of Cp2Ln complexes with Ln = La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tm, Yb. Many of these reduce N2. New methods of producing organometallic Ln(II) complexes by steric reduction and base-induced reduction are outlined.
- divalent state;
- aqueous solution;
- non aqueous solution;
- redox potentials;
- sterically induced reduction