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  1. Ujjal K. Sur

Published Online: 14 MAR 2014

DOI: 10.1002/9781119951438.eibc2243

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Sur, U. K. 2014. Graphene. Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. 1–32.

Author Information

  1. University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 MAR 2014


Graphene, a one-atom-thick planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, is considered to be the mother of all graphitic materials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphite. Graphene, the two-dimensional form of graphite, was first isolated in 2004 by Geim and Novoselov of Manchester University, the United Kingdom. Today, graphene is the most attractive nanomaterial not only because it is the thinnest known material and the strongest material ever measured in the universe, but also because of its excellent electrical, thermal, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. It has potential applications ranging from sensors, field-effect transistors, displays, energy storage, and photovoltaic devices. The aim of this article is to provide an updated overview of graphene in terms of synthesis, historical background, and some of the amazing properties and potential applications ranging from sensors to energy storage devices. In addition to these, special emphasis has been given to various graphene/polymer nanocomposites in terms of fabrication, properties, and potential applications.


  • graphene;
  • graphite;
  • graphite oxide;
  • nanomaterial;
  • micromechanical cleavage;
  • Dirac fermions;
  • quantum Hall effect;
  • exfoliation;
  • nanocomposites