6. Sources of Bias in Diagnostic Studies

  1. Matthew Thompson1,2 and
  2. Ann Van den Bruel2

Published Online: 1 NOV 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781119951827.ch6

Diagnostic Tests Toolkit

Diagnostic Tests Toolkit

How to Cite

Thompson, M. and Van den Bruel, A. (2011) Sources of Bias in Diagnostic Studies, in Diagnostic Tests Toolkit, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119951827.ch6

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Family Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 NOV 2011
  2. Published Print: 7 OCT 2011

Book Series:

Book Series Editors:

  1. Carl Heneghan,
  2. Rafael Perera and
  3. Douglas Badenoch

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470657584

Online ISBN: 9781119951827



  • diagnostic studies, and bias;
  • appraising a study;
  • key biases;
  • spectrum or selection bias;
  • verification bias;
  • incorporation bias;
  • observer, test review bias;
  • differential reference bias;
  • double gold standard;
  • potential biases


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Spectrum bias (also known as selection bias)

  • Verification bias (also called referral or work-up bias)

  • Incorporation bias

  • Observer (or test review bias) bias

  • Differential reference bias (double gold standard)

  • What are the effects of the different design-related biases?

  • Further reading