9b. Examination of Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Labels

  1. John M. Chalmers3,
  2. Howell G. M. Edwards4 and
  3. Michael D. Hargreaves5
  1. Mark R. Witkowski1 and
  2. Mary W. Carrabba2

Published Online: 10 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781119962328.ch9b

Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy in Forensic Science

Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy in Forensic Science

How to Cite

Witkowski, M. R. and Carrabba, M. W. (2012) Examination of Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Labels, in Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy in Forensic Science (eds J. M. Chalmers, H. G. M. Edwards and M. D. Hargreaves), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119962328.ch9b

Editor Information

  1. 3

    VS Consulting, Stokesley, UK

  2. 4

    Chemical and Forensic Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK

  3. 5

    Thermo Scientific Portable Optical Analyzers, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Wilmington, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    FDA Forensic Chemistry Center, Trace Examination Section, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Chemistry, Southern Oregon University, 1250 Siskiyou Boulevard, Ashland, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 10 JAN 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 FEB 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470749067

Online ISBN: 9781119962328



  • examination of counterfeit pharmaceutical labels;
  • counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs, the US and FDA and others;
  • counterfeit pharmaceuticals, correct, wrong ingredients, incorrect APIs, fake packaging;
  • “counterfeit drug” labelling without authorisation, of drug manufacturers;
  • counterfeit pharmaceutical, with light microscopy, molecular spectroscopy;
  • IR and Raman spectroscopy, evidence in pharmaceutical forensic cases;
  • counterfeit packaging analysis, SLM analysis of printing on suspect labels;
  • counterfeit Lipitor® labels, using Smiths Detection IlluminatIR™ FT-IR, with ATR;
  • IR and Raman spectroscopy, characterising authentic pharmaceutical labels;
  • chemical functional analysis of labels, and suspect, visual, from SLM


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Counterfeit Packaging Analysis

  • Case Study I: Counterfeit Lipitor Labels

  • Case Study II: Counterfeit Zyprexa Labels

  • Conclusion

  • Disclaimer

  • Acknowledgements

  • References