3. Plasma Processing of Low-k Dielectrics

  1. Mikhail R. Baklanov3,
  2. Paul S. Ho4 and
  3. Ehrenfried Zschech5
  1. Hualiang Shi1,
  2. Denis Shamiryan2,
  3. Jean-François de Marneffe3,
  4. Huai Huang4,
  5. Paul S. Ho4 and
  6. Mikhail R. Baklanov3

Published Online: 17 FEB 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781119963677.ch3

Advanced Interconnects for ULSI Technology

Advanced Interconnects for ULSI Technology

How to Cite

Shi, H., Shamiryan, D., de Marneffe, J.-F., Huang, H., Ho, P. S. and Baklanov, M. R. (2012) Plasma Processing of Low-k Dielectrics, in Advanced Interconnects for ULSI Technology (eds M. R. Baklanov, P. S. Ho and E. Zschech), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119963677.ch3

Editor Information

  1. 3

    IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium

  2. 4

    Lab for Interconnect and Packaging, The University of Texas at Austin, UT-PRC 10100 Burnet Road, Bldg 160, Mail Code R8650, Austin, TX 78758, USA

  3. 5

    Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing IZFP, Dresden Branch, Maria-Reiche-Strasse 2, 01109 Dresden, Germany

Author Information

  1. 1

    INTEL Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, USA

  2. 2

    GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Dresden Module One LLC & Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse 101, 01109 Dresden, Germany

  3. 3

    IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium

  4. 4

    Lab for Interconnect and Packaging, The University of Texas at Austin, UT-PRC 10100 Burnet Road, Bldg 160, Mail Code R8650, Austin, TX 78758, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 FEB 2012
  2. Published Print: 24 FEB 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470662540

Online ISBN: 9781119963677

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Keywords:

  • interconnects;
  • low-k dielectrics;
  • plasma etching;
  • plasma damage

Summary

This chapter is an overview of plasma processing used for fabrication of interconnect structures for modern ULSI devices. The chapter contains four parts, including analysis of (1) materials and equipment, (2) interaction of low-k materials with plasma, (3) plasma damage and (4) restoration of damaged low-k materials. Presently used interconnect dielectrics are porous and energetic ions, radicals and photons, which could penetrate a porous medium causing substantial damage. The main manifestation of plasma damage is removal of carbon from hybrid low-k dielectrics. Carbon-containing groups are responsible for hydrophobicity of the dielectric, which is needed to repel water, which has a very high dielectric constant (around 80). Once hydrophilic, the porous dielectric adsorbs a lot of water, which increases its effective dielectric constant and reduces reliability. Besides hydrophilizing the low-k dielectrics, plasma could densify them, create charge traps, etc. This chapter gives also an insight into the mechanisms of plasma damage and ways to reduce it either by choosing appropriate plasma chemistry or an integration scheme. A possibility of recovery of the dielectric characteristics of plasma-damaged low-k materials is considered as well.