6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis

  1. Howard L. Weiner MD3,4,5 and
  2. James M. Stankiewicz MD3,4
  1. Mohit Neema MD1,2,
  2. Antonia Ceccarelli MD1,2,
  3. Jonathan S. Jackson PhD1,2 and
  4. Rohit Bakshi MD, FAAN1,2

Published Online: 23 FEB 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781119963714.ch6

Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis and Therapy

Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis and Therapy

How to Cite

Neema, M., Ceccarelli, A., Jackson, J. S. and Bakshi, R. (2012) Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis, in Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis and Therapy (eds H. L. Weiner and J. M. Stankiewicz), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119963714.ch6

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

  2. 4

    Partners Multiple Sclerosis Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

  3. 5

    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Partners Multiple Sclerosis Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, MA, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 23 FEB 2012
  2. Published Print: 6 APR 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470654637

Online ISBN: 9781119963714

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • Multiple sclerosis;
  • brain;
  • spinal cord;
  • MRI;
  • CNS;
  • T2-hyperintense lesion;
  • T1 black hole;
  • gadolinium-enhancing lesion;
  • T1-hyperintense lesion;
  • T2 hypointensity;
  • iron;
  • MR spectroscopy;
  • magnetization transfer;
  • diffusion imaging;
  • relaxometry;
  • atrophy;
  • cortical lesion

Summary

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord has become a routine tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS) and has emerged as a key supportive outcome measure in clinical trials. Conventional MRI lesion and atrophy measures are particularly useful for assessing macroscopic damage but lack sensitivity and specificity to the underlying MS pathology. They also show relatively weak relationships to clinical status such as predictive strength for clinical change. Advanced MR techniques, such as diffusion, magnetization transfer imaging, relaxometry, and MR spectroscopy are relatively more specific and sensitive to the underlying pathology. These measures have provided unique insights into the pathophysiology of MS and may help resolve the dissociation between clinical and conventional MRI findings. This chapter summarizes the importance and role of MRI in the characterization of MS-related brain and spinal cord tissue damage.