4. Environmental Agents and Reproductive Risk

  1. John T. Queenan MD2,
  2. Catherine Y. Spong MD3 and
  3. Charles J. Lockwood MD4
  1. Laura Goetzl MD, MPH

Published Online: 4 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781119963783.ch4

Queenan's Management of High-Risk Pregnancy: An Evidence-Based Approach, Sixth Edition

Queenan's Management of High-Risk Pregnancy: An Evidence-Based Approach, Sixth Edition

How to Cite

Goetzl, L. (2012) Environmental Agents and Reproductive Risk, in Queenan's Management of High-Risk Pregnancy: An Evidence-Based Approach, Sixth Edition (eds J. T. Queenan, C. Y. Spong and C. J. Lockwood), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119963783.ch4

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA

  2. 3

    Bethesda, MD, USA

  3. 4

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Author Information

  1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 JAN 2012
  2. Published Print: 24 FEB 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470655764

Online ISBN: 9781119963783

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Keywords:

  • environmental agents and reproductive risk;
  • developmental toxicity, occupational, environmental;
  • toxicity evaluation, exposures and outcomes;
  • reproductive toxicology sources;
  • principles of reproductive toxicity, environmental agents;
  • toxicity, via a biologically plausible mechanism;
  • women, occupational lead exposure and pesticides;
  • methyl mercury crossing placenta, in fetal tissues;
  • fish consumption, fetal and childhood mercury exposure;
  • PCB in diet, low-level maternal exposure, crossing placenta

Summary

Obstetricians are frequently asked about the reproductive risks of specific environmental, work-related, or dietary exposures. While few exposures have been associated with a measurable increase in risk of congenital anomaly, fetal death, or growth impairment, ongoing research continues to identify new areas of concern. Research linking low levels of environmental exposures is hampered by the cost and difficulty of prospective cohort studies with accurate ascertainment of exposure to specific agents at various gestational periods. In this chapter, we discuss the principles concerning the evaluation of the developmental toxicity of occupational and environmental exposures in general, and review selected agents that have been associated with reproductive toxicity.