1. Male Gender Identity and Masculine Behavior: The Role of Sex Hormones in Brain Development

  1. Mario Maggi
  1. Baudewijntje P. C. Kreukels and
  2. Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis

Published Online: 29 NOV 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781119963820.ch1

Hormonal Therapy for Male Sexual Dysfunction

Hormonal Therapy for Male Sexual Dysfunction

How to Cite

Kreukels, B. P. C. and Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2011) Male Gender Identity and Masculine Behavior: The Role of Sex Hormones in Brain Development, in Hormonal Therapy for Male Sexual Dysfunction (ed M. Maggi), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119963820.ch1

Editor Information

  1. Sexual Medicine & Andrology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

Author Information

  1. Department of Medical Psychology, Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 29 NOV 2011
  2. Published Print: 15 DEC 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470657607

Online ISBN: 9781119963820

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • Gender development;
  • gender identity;
  • gender role behavior;
  • sex hormones;
  • testosterone;
  • prenatal hormones;
  • masculinity;
  • sexual dimorphism;
  • disorders of sexual development;
  • transsexualism;
  • gender dysphoria;
  • gender incongruence

Summary

Sex hormones, androgens in particular, direct the sexual differentiation of the brain. However, prenatal exposure to androgens appears to influence the development of masculine gender role behavior more than the development of a male gender identity. A male gender development results from a dialogue between biological, environmental and psychological factors. When these factors work, for some reason, against a male pathway, the consequence may be some or extreme (e.g. transsexualism) gender variance in behavior and/or identity.