9. Disorders of Calcium and Bone Metabolism

  1. Charles G. D. Brook MA, MD, FRCP, FRCPCH1 and
  2. Mehul T. Dattani MD, FRCP, FRCPCH, DCH2,3

Published Online: 23 FEB 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781119968153.ch9

Handbook of Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology, Second Edition

Handbook of Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology, Second Edition

How to Cite

Brook, C. G. D. and Dattani, M. T. (2012) Disorders of Calcium and Bone Metabolism, in Handbook of Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology, Second Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119968153.ch9

Author Information

  1. 1

    University College London, London, UK

  2. 2

    Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, UK

  3. 3

    Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London and University College London Hospitals, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 23 FEB 2012
  2. Published Print: 13 APR 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470657881

Online ISBN: 9781119968153

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Keywords:

  • Albright hereditary osteodystrophy;
  • bisphosphonates;
  • bone metabolism;
  • calcitonin;
  • calcium;
  • collagen;
  • hypercalcemia;
  • hyperparathyroidism;
  • hypocalcemia;
  • hypoparathyroidism;
  • magnesium;
  • metabolic bone disease;
  • multiple endocrine neoplasia;
  • osteoporosis;
  • parathyroid hormone;
  • phosphorus;
  • pseudohypoparathyroidism;
  • rickets;
  • vitamin D

Summary

Calcium metabolism is complicated and disorders of calcium are rare. They are often given short shrift in pediatric textbooks but a simple guide to undertanding the causes, diagnosis and management of these disorders, which have disabling consequences, is given in this chapter. Calcium homeostasis is maintained principally by parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. Calcium is important for bone and neuromuscular function. Hypocalcemia may be associated with hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone resistance, or causes of rickets. Rickets due to vitamin D deficiency is more common in exclusively breast-fed, dark-skinned infants who do not receive adequate sun exposure or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy and can be life-threatening.