Standard Article

Bilingual/Immersion Teacher Education

  1. Diane J. Tedick,
  2. Tara W. Fortune

Published Online: 5 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0096

The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics

How to Cite

Tedick, D. J. and Fortune, T. W. 2012. Bilingual/Immersion Teacher Education. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 NOV 2012


Bilingual education is a broad term that encompasses a wide range of program models involving use of at least two languages for academic instruction, one being the majority language of the geographic area where the program is offered. Fortune and Tedick (2008), among others, identify four bilingual/immersion models as a subset within this broad category that have distinct design features and end goals: one-way foreign language immersion, two-way bilingual immersion, one-way developmental bilingual education, and indigenous language immersion. These school-based programs offer a minimum of 50% of subject-matter instruction through a second, foreign, heritage, or indigenous language. They aim for additive bi- or multilingualism and additive bi- or multiliteracy (i.e., the addition of one or more languages while further developing the first), academic achievement, and intercultural understanding. Baker (2006) refers to these four models as “strong” forms of bilingual education. This entry is limited to teacher education for these models.


  • bilingualism;
  • language revitalization;
  • language teaching;
  • heritage languages