Standard Article

Commercial Translation

  1. Geoffrey S. Koby

Published Online: 5 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0156

The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics

How to Cite

Koby, G. S. 2012. Commercial Translation. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 NOV 2012


Commercial translation is the translation of a source text (a written original) into a written target text, generally by a freelance professional translator, for a commercial purpose and for remuneration, often with short deadlines. The translation industry operates largely using an agency model: translation agencies work with clients to determine translation needs, then contract with freelance translators who produce the translation using a “translate-edit-proof” model where one translator produces a translation, a second translator in the same language pair (the “editor”) checks for accuracy and revises the translation, and a proofreader checks the target text for correctness. Translation agencies also provide other services to clients, such as desktop publishing. Some professional translators also provide the entire translation service to direct clients.


  • intercultural communication;
  • language for specific purposes;
  • translation