Standard Article


  1. Nick C. Ellis

Published Online: 5 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0364

The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics

How to Cite

Ellis, N. C. 2012. Emergentism. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 NOV 2012


Saussure (1916) characterized the units of language as linguistic signs, the signifiers of linguistic form and their associated signified functions, concepts, or meanings.


  • cognitive science;
  • language variation and change;
  • psycholinguistics;
  • second language acquisition;
  • child language;
  • evolution