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Input-Based Instructional Approaches

  1. Eve Zyzik

Published Online: 5 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0542

The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics

How to Cite

Zyzik, E. 2012. Input-Based Instructional Approaches. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 NOV 2012


An observable fact of the language acquisition process is that no language, be it the first (L1) or the second (L2), can be learned successfully without extensive and meaningful exposure to that language. Accordingly, all theories of second language acquisition (SLA) attribute a significant role to input, which can be succinctly defined as the language in the learner's environment. Input is often referred to as “raw data,” “primary linguistic data,” the “stimulus array,” or the “positive evidence” available to learners. Input can be both aural and written. One of the fundamental questions in SLA is whether input is a sufficient condition for acquisition to occur, or whether other elements (e.g., attention, noticing, feedback, and output) are equally essential. Thus, many instructional approaches combine exposure to the target language with opportunities for output and interaction. Nevertheless, there are some approaches to L2 instruction that prioritize input, many of them proposing innovative ways of manipulating the input in order to maximize learning outcomes.


  • language teaching;
  • second language acquisition;
  • teaching methods in applied linguistics