Chapter 12. Clinical Problem Solving and Diagnostic Decision Making: A Selective Review of the Cognitive Research Literature

  1. J. André Knottnerus MD, PhD Professor of General Practice President3,4 and
  2. Frank Buntinx MD, PhD Professor5,6,7
  1. Alan Schwartz PhD Associate Professor Director of Research1 and
  2. Arthur S. Elstein PhD2

Published Online: 2 FEB 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444300574.ch12

The Evidence Base of Clinical Diagnosis: Theory and methods of diagnostic research, Second Edition

The Evidence Base of Clinical Diagnosis: Theory and methods of diagnostic research, Second Edition

How to Cite

Schwartz, A. and Elstein, A. S. (2008) Clinical Problem Solving and Diagnostic Decision Making: A Selective Review of the Cognitive Research Literature, in The Evidence Base of Clinical Diagnosis: Theory and methods of diagnostic research, Second Edition (eds J. A. Knottnerus and F. Buntinx), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444300574.ch12

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Netherlands School of Primary Care Research, Maastricht University, The Hague, The Netherlands

  2. 4

    The Health Council of The Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands

  3. 5

    Department of General Practice, Catholic University Leuven, Belgium

  4. 6

    Netherlands School of Primary Care Research, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

  5. 7

    Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

Author Information

  1. 1

    Departments of Medical Education and Pediatrics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Medical Education, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 2 FEB 2009
  2. Published Print: 10 OCT 2008

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405157872

Online ISBN: 9781444300574

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Keywords:

  • problem-solving research and ill-structured problem situation;
  • problem solving - diagnosis as hypothesis selection;
  • hypothetico-deductive method;
  • hypothesis generation and selective data collection;
  • pattern recognition or categorization;
  • hypothesis generation and restructuring errors;
  • decision making - diagnosis as opinion revision;
  • probability estimation errors;
  • support theory

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Problem solving: diagnosis as hypothesis selection

  • The hypothetico-deductive method

  • Pattern recognition or categorization

  • Errors in hypothesis generation and restructuring

  • Decision making: diagnosis as opinion revision

  • Errors in probability estimation

  • Errors in probability revision

  • Two-system theories of cognition

  • Educational implications

  • Methodological guidelines

  • Conclusion

  • Acknowledgments

  • References