Chapter 2. Adaptations to Training

  1. Professor Martin P. Schwellnus MBBCh, MSc, MD
  1. Iñigo Mujika PhD1,
  2. Shona Halson PhD2,
  3. Iñigo Mujika PhD1,
  4. Nicholas A. Ratamess PhD3,
  5. Mikel Izquierdo PhD4,
  6. John A. Hawley PhD5,
  7. Gustavo A. Nader PhD6,
  8. Michael Kjær MD, PhD7,
  9. Simon Doessing MD7,
  10. Katja Peltola Mjøsund MD8,
  11. Darren E. R. Warburton PhD9,
  12. A. William Sheel PhD10,
  13. Donald C. McKenzie MD, PhD11,
  14. Pekka Kannus MD, PhD12,
  15. Riku Nikander MD, PhD12,
  16. Harri Sievänen MD, PhD12 and
  17. Iñigo Mujika PhD1

Published Online: 29 JAN 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444300635.ch2

Olympic Textbook of Medicine in Sport

Olympic Textbook of Medicine in Sport

How to Cite

Mujika, I., Halson, S., Mujika, I., Ratamess, N. A., Izquierdo, M., Hawley, J. A., Nader, G. A., Kjær, M., Doessing, S., Mjøsund, K. P., Warburton, D. E. R., Sheel, A. W., McKenzie, D. C., Kannus, P., Nikander, R., Sievänen, H. and Mujika, I. (2008) Adaptations to Training, in Olympic Textbook of Medicine in Sport (ed M. P. Schwellnus), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444300635.ch2

Editor Information

  1. UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Research and Development, Athletic Club Bilbao, Spain

  2. 2

    Department of Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, Belconnen, ACT, Australia

  3. 3

    Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, USA

  4. 4

    Studies, Research and Sport Medicine Center, Government of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

  5. 5

    Exercise Metabolism Group, School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia

  6. 6

    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

  7. 7

    Institute of Sports Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital at Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark

  8. 8

    Biomedicum – Helsinki, Helsinki University, Finland

  9. 9

    School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

  10. 10

    School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia, Osborne Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada

  11. 11

    Division of Sports Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

  12. 12

    Accident and Trauma Research Center, UKK Institute, Tampere, Finland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 29 JAN 2009
  2. Published Print: 10 OCT 2008

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405156370

Online ISBN: 9781444300635



  • models of fatigue;
  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP);
  • neuromuscular adaptations to training;
  • metabolic adaptations to training;
  • endocrine adaptations to training;
  • cardiorespiratory adaptations to training;
  • adaptations of bone and connective tissue to training;
  • total body bone mineral content (TBBMC);
  • adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and cortisol


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Practical considerations

  • The future of fatigue

  • Muscle perfomance adaptations to training

  • Neural adaptations to training

  • Muscular adaptations to training

  • Objectives of training for enhancing athletic performance

  • The training stimulus, response, and adaptation continuum

  • Metabolic adaptations to endurance training

  • Time-course of adaptive changes in skeletal muscle

  • Goals of a strength training program

  • Metabolic adaptations to strength training

  • Performance adaptations to strength and endurance training

  • Can strength training improve endurance performance?

  • Sympatoadrenergic responses

  • Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I

  • Insulin and glucagon

  • Reproductive hormones

  • ACTH and cortisol

  • Cytokines

  • Conclusions: Endocrine adaptations to training in athletes

  • Adaptation of bone to training

  • Principles of skeletal adaptation to training

  • Recommendations for improving bone strength through exercise

  • Adaptation of connective tissue to training

  • Adaptation of a tendon to training

  • Adaptation of a ligament to training

  • Conclusions

  • References