Chapter 3. Electrical Assessment of the Failing Heart

  1. Kenneth A. Ellenbogen MD2 and
  2. Angelo Auricchio MD, PhD Director3
  1. Dan Blendea MD, PhD and
  2. Jagmeet P. Singh MD, DPhil

Published Online: 26 FEB 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444303452.ch3

Pacing to Support the Failing Heart

Pacing to Support the Failing Heart

How to Cite

Blendea, D. and Singh, J. P. (2008) Electrical Assessment of the Failing Heart, in Pacing to Support the Failing Heart (eds K. A. Ellenbogen and A. Auricchio), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444303452.ch3

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Kontos Professor of Cardiology, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USA

  2. 3

    Heart Failure Service, Fondazione Cardiocentro Ticino, Lugano, Switzerland

Author Information

  1. Cardiac Arrhythmia Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 FEB 2009
  2. Published Print: 5 DEC 2008

Book Series:

  1. The AHA Clinical Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Elliott Antman

Series Editor Information

  1. Samuel A. Levine Cardiac Unit, Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405175340

Online ISBN: 9781444303452



  • electrical activation sequence of heart;
  • assessment of electrical activation in failing heart;
  • electrical activation of normal heart;
  • atrial conduction system;
  • electrical activation of ventricles and his–purkinje system;
  • normal electrical activation sequence;
  • conduction abnormalities in failing heart;
  • LV activation wavefront


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Key Points

  • Introduction

  • Electrical activation of the normal heart

  • Mechanical activation: The importance of a normal atrio-ventricular and ventricular activation sequence

  • Pathophysiological changes in the conduction system of the failing heart

  • Conduction abnormalities in the failing heart

  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy and electromechanical consequences

  • Conclusion

  • References