Chapter 54. Procedural Sedation and Analgesia

  1. Brian H. Rowe MD, MSc, CCFP(EM), FCCP Professor Research Director
  1. David W. Messenger MD Assistant Professor1 and
  2. Marco L. A. Sivilotti MD, MSc, FRCPC, FACEP, FACMT Associate Professor Consultant2,3

Published Online: 27 FEB 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444303674.ch54

Evidence-Based Emergency Medicine

Evidence-Based Emergency Medicine

How to Cite

Messenger, D. W. and Sivilotti, M. L. A. (2008) Procedural Sedation and Analgesia, in Evidence-Based Emergency Medicine (ed B. H. Rowe), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444303674.ch54

Editor Information

  1. Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Emergency Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

  2. 2

    Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

  3. 3

    Ontario Poison Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 FEB 2009
  2. Published Print: 31 OCT 2008

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405161435

Online ISBN: 9781444303674



  • procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA);
  • American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification;
  • ED procedural sedation and analgesia by searching for evidence in MEDLINE and EMBASE;
  • pre-sedation fasting and adverse event frequency;
  • Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH);
  • ketamine - safe and effective short-acting PSA agent;
  • MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane - ketamine AND emergency department


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Clinical scenario

  • Background

  • Clinical questions

  • General search strategy

  • Critical review of the literature

  • Conclusions

  • References