Late Cenozoic Tectonics and Sedimentation in the North-Western Himalayan Foredeep: I. Thrust Ramping and Associated Deformation in the Potwar Region

  1. P. A. Allen and
  2. P. Homewood
  1. Gary D. Johnson1,
  2. Robert G. H. Raynolds2 and
  3. Douglas W. Burbank3

Published Online: 5 MAY 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444303810.ch15

Foreland Basins

Foreland Basins

How to Cite

Johnson, G. D., Raynolds, R. G. H. and Burbank, D. W. (1986) Late Cenozoic Tectonics and Sedimentation in the North-Western Himalayan Foredeep: I. Thrust Ramping and Associated Deformation in the Potwar Region, in Foreland Basins (eds P. A. Allen and P. Homewood), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444303810.ch15

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Earth Sciences, Fairchild Science Center, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA

  2. 2

    AMOCO Production Company, P.O. Box 3092, Houston, Texas 77253, USA

  3. 3

    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0741, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 MAY 2009
  2. Published Print: 22 DEC 1986

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780632017324

Online ISBN: 9781444303810

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Keywords:

  • Late Cenozoic tectonics and sedimentation in north-western Himalayan foredeep - thrust ramping and associated deformation in Potwar region;
  • Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) zone;
  • faulting in Punjab foreland;
  • sedimentary dynamics of molasse deposition;
  • Campbellpore Basin and Kala Chitta Range;
  • Buttar (Mankiala) Anticline;
  • salt range thrust ramping;
  • Potwar Plateau/Salt Range detachment and related basins to NW

Summary

The deformed proximal margin of the Himalayan foreland basin of northern India and Pakistan contains a sequence of over 3000 m of Neogene and Quaternary clastic rocks known as the Siwalik Group. These rocks record the influence of external tectonic controls exerted by the adjacent Himalayan orogenic belt together with internal, syndepositional structural controls emanating from within the foreland basin itself. The application of a magnetic polarity stratigraphy to constrain the chronology of sediment accumulation allows for the documentation of the onset, duration, and termination of various structural events preserved in the sedimentary record with a precision which may approach ∼20,000 to ∼50,000 yr. Analysis of magnetostratigraphies from more than 20 sites across the Potwar Plateau and adjacent regions of the north-western Himalayan foredeep define two intervals of major deformation, both of which are associated with minor precursor and post-deformational sedimentologic changes. The first event initiates in the Miocene and culminates in the mid-Pliocene between 4.5 and 3.5 Myr BP. This event is manifested by strong folding, uplift and rotation in areas adjacent to the present Salt Range. The second deformational interval spans 2.1–1.6 Myr BP and preserves a record of massive deformation throughout much of the Potwar region. This disruption is interpreted to be a response to progressive stress accumulation and paroxysmal release due to the overriding of a major basement fault by the Salt Range detachment.