Pleistocene Glacial Fan Deltas in Southern Ontario, Canada

  1. Albina Colella2 and
  2. David B. Prior3
  1. I. P. Martini

Published Online: 2 APR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444303858.ch16

Coarse-Grained Deltas

Coarse-Grained Deltas

How to Cite

Martini, I. P. (1990) Pleistocene Glacial Fan Deltas in Southern Ontario, Canada, in Coarse-Grained Deltas (eds A. Colella and D. B. Prior), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444303858.ch16

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Universita della Calabria, Italy

  2. 3

    Atlantic Geoscience Center, Nova Scotia, Canada

Author Information

  1. Department of Land Resource Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 2 APR 2009
  2. Published Print: 19 OCT 1990

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780632028948

Online ISBN: 9781444303858



  • stratified ice contact and outwash deposits, forming at margins of Pleistocene icesheets;
  • valley trains;
  • Glacio-Lacustrine and marine fan deltas;
  • Niagara Escarpment;
  • fluvial-dominated fan delta, forming at torrential valley train;
  • grain-flow processes;
  • flow slide deposits


Stratified ice contact and outwash deposits were commonly formed at the margins of the Pleistocene ice-sheets which covered North America. Local advance and retreat of the glacial terminus mimicked reactivation of faults and erosion in tectonically active areas. Examples are presented in this paper of foresetted fan deltas which formed in lakes and seas near glacier terminus, fed by eskers or other englacial streams, and at the end of outwash and ‘valley trains’ of various lengths. The fan deltas treated here have similar foresets, characterized by massive to parallel-bedded gravelly layers alternating with openwork gravel and coarse sand lenses, mostly emplaced by mass flow. They vary, however, in types of topsets (bouldery channel deposits or washed beach gravels), and in the complexity of lateral and vertical facies transitions which is in part due to rapid change in recurring strong fluvial floods and to rapid water-level changes of lakes or sea.