Manganese and Iron Facies in Hydrolithic Sediments

  1. John Parnell,
  2. Ye Lianjun and
  3. Chen Changming
  1. G. A. Gross

Published Online: 3 APR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444303872.ch3

Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988

Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988

How to Cite

Gross, G. A. (1990) Manganese and Iron Facies in Hydrolithic Sediments, in Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988 (eds J. Parnell, Y. Lianjun and C. Changming), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444303872.ch3

Editor Information

  1. Department of Geology, The Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 INN, UK

Author Information

  1. Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth St., Ottawa, Canada, K1A 0E8

  1. Geological Survey of Canada Contribution No. 41888.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 3 APR 2009
  2. Published Print: 27 SEP 1990

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780632028818

Online ISBN: 9781444303872

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Keywords:

  • Karadzhal iron - manganese deposits;
  • Algoma type iron formation near Woodstock;
  • manganiferous jasper - hematite facies;
  • Lake Superior type formations;
  • stratafer sediments

Summary

Manganese-rich facies in Algoma, Lake Superior and Rapitan types of iron formation are an important part of the stratafer group of siliceous metalliferous sediments. Manganese oxide and carbonate facies associated with iron formation, chert, carbonate, shale, turbidites, tuff and lava are up to 30 m thick and have iron to manganese ratios ranging from 0.2 to 2. The major and minor element contents of stratafer manganese sediments are compared to typical oxide facies of iron formation and to modern protolithic facies on the seafloor that formed by hydrothermal effusive and hydrogenous processes. Cherty manganiferous facies and their gondite metamorphic equivalents occur throughout the geological record, provide major resources of manganese, and are the most common protore for high-grade manganese deposits that formed by secondary enrichment processes.