Evidence of Tidal Influence in the Murree Group of Rocks of the Jammu Himalaya, India

  1. B. W. Flemming and
  2. A. Bartholomä
  1. B. P. Singh and
  2. H. Singh

Published Online: 14 APR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444304138.ch23

Tidal Signatures in Modern and Ancient Sediments

Tidal Signatures in Modern and Ancient Sediments

How to Cite

Singh, B. P. and Singh, H. (1995) Evidence of Tidal Influence in the Murree Group of Rocks of the Jammu Himalaya, India, in Tidal Signatures in Modern and Ancient Sediments (eds B. W. Flemming and A. Bartholomä), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444304138.ch23

Author Information

  1. Department of Geology, University of Jammu, Jammu, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 APR 2009
  2. Published Print: 11 AUG 1995

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780865429789

Online ISBN: 9781444304138



  • sediments of the Murree Group, forming broad rim in the inner Tertiary belt;
  • herringbone cross-bedding in Lower Murree sandstones;
  • Lower Murree Formation, having cyclic architecture;
  • rocks of Upper Murree Formation, consisting conglomerates;
  • sedimentary structures in Murree Group of rocks, reflecting hydrodynamic conditions


The sediments of the Murree Group form a broad rim in the inner Tertiary belt of the Himalaya, extending from the Jhelum syntaxis to the Jammu foothills on the Indian subcontinent. The Murree foreland basin, in which the sediments from the Himalayan uplifts have accumulated, was formed as a result of the early Tertiary Himalayan Orogeny. Recent palaeomagnetic and palaeontologoic studies have revealed that these sediments were deposited in the late Eocene–early Miocene.

The present study is confined to the Murree Group of rocks exposed along the Jammu—Srinagar highway (north of Udhampur) and deals with the depositional environments in relation to lithofacies and their organization, sedimentary structures, trace fossils and palaeocurrent patterns. Lithologically, the Murree Group of rocks has been divided into a Lower Murree Formation, exhibiting a cyclic sandstone—siltstone–mudstone sequence, and an Upper Murree Formation with sandstone—mudstone cycles. The individual cycles in the Lower Murree start with an erosional base, followed by channel-lag conglomerates, cross-bedded sandstones with thin mud flasers and massive sandstones. The latter are overlain by laminated sandstones displaying ripples, massive sandstones and mudstone–siltstone intercalations. In the upper Murree Formation, the arrangement of the rock units changes with a general increase of sandstone facies as compared to mudstone facies. The absence of siltstone facies is a characteristic feature in the Upper Murree Formation. The presence of strongly bioturbated, pebbly conglomerates and cross-bedded sandstones with thin mud flasers indicates deposition in a subtidal environment. The sandstone—mudstone intercalations along with laminated siltstones represent a mixed tidal flat sequence deposited in the intertidal zone.

The presence of herringbone cross-bedding in the Lower Murree sandstones further enhances the evidence for tidal influence during the accumulation of these sediments. The sole marks (groove casts and flute casts) at the base of the cycles of the Lower Murree rocks indicate their formation in tidal channels. The bifurcated, straight-crested asymmetrical, linguoid starved ripples in the Lower as well as the Upper Murree rocks substantiate the tidal origin of these rocks. Wrinkle marks indicate intertidal emergence of the sediments. Vertical burrows point towards deposition in a shallow-water environment. Palaeocurrent patterns are bimodal and in part bipolar. On the basis of this evidence an estuarine depositional environment with strong tidal influence is suggested for the Murree Group of rocks.