November 1996 Jökulhlaup on Skeiðarársandur Outwash Plain, Iceland

  1. I. Peter Martini2,
  2. Victor R. Baker3 and
  3. Guillermina Garzón4
  1. Á. Snorrason,
  2. P. Jónsson,
  3. O. Sigurðsson,
  4. S. Pálsson,
  5. S. Árnason,
  6. S. Víkingsson and
  7. I. Kaldal

Published Online: 17 MAR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444304299.ch4

Flood and Megaflood Processes and Deposits: Recent and Ancient Examples

Flood and Megaflood Processes and Deposits: Recent and Ancient Examples

How to Cite

Snorrason, Á., Jónsson, P., Sigurðsson, O., Pálsson, S., Árnason, S., Víkingsson, S. and Kaldal, I. (2002) November 1996 Jökulhlaup on Skeiðarársandur Outwash Plain, Iceland, in Flood and Megaflood Processes and Deposits: Recent and Ancient Examples (eds I. P. Martini, V. R. Baker and G. Garzón), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444304299.ch4

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Department of Land Resource Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

  2. 3

    Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721–0011, USA

  3. 4

    Dpto de Geodinámica, Fac. de Geología, Universidad of Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Author Information

  1. Hydrological Service, National Energy Authority, Grensásvegi 9, IS-108 Reykjavík, Iceland

  1. This paper combines three short contributions presented originally as extended abstracts in the Proceedings of the XX Nordic Hydrological Conference, Helsinki, Finland, 1998: Nordic Hydrological Programme, NHP Report no. 44.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 MAR 2009
  2. Published Print: 10 FEB 2002

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780632064045

Online ISBN: 9781444304299

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Keywords:

  • glacial outwash floods;
  • November 1996 jökulhlaup on Skeiðarársandur outwash plain, Iceland;
  • Jökulhlaup chronology;
  • measurements of water levels and temperature;
  • discharge and sediment transport - hydrograph estimation;
  • Jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) - more common in Iceland

Summary

On 30 September 1996, seismological evidence indicated that a volcanic eruption was starting north of the Grímsvötn caldera in the glacier Vatnajökull, Iceland. As the eruption developed during the first half of October, meltwater was collected in the subglacial lake2 Grímsvötn at a tremendous rate. It was obvious that a catastrophic jökulhlaup could be expected on the outwash plain Skeiðarársandur south of the glacier Skeiðarárjökull, endangering travellers, as well as bridges and roads in the area. This paper describes the events, hydrograph and suspended sediment transport for the catastrophic flood on Skeiðarársandur, following the subglacial eruption.