Palaeoproterozoic Epeiric Sea Palaeoenvironments: The Silverton Formation (Pretoria Group, Transvaal Supergroup), South Africa

  1. Wladyslaw Altermann2 and
  2. Patricia L. Corcoran3
  1. P. G. Eriksson1,
  2. W. Altermann2,
  3. L. Eberhardt2,
  4. S. Arend-Heidbrinck2 and
  5. A. J. Bumby1

Published Online: 12 MAR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444304312.ch16

Precambrian Sedimentary Environments: A Modern Approach to Ancient Depositional Systems

Precambrian Sedimentary Environments: A Modern Approach to Ancient Depositional Systems

How to Cite

Eriksson, P. G., Altermann, W., Eberhardt, L., Arend-Heidbrinck, S. and Bumby, A. J. (2002) Palaeoproterozoic Epeiric Sea Palaeoenvironments: The Silverton Formation (Pretoria Group, Transvaal Supergroup), South Africa, in Precambrian Sedimentary Environments: A Modern Approach to Ancient Depositional Systems (eds W. Altermann and P. L. Corcoran), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444304312.ch16

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Institut für Allgemeine und Angewandte Geologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Luisenstrasse 37, D-80333 Munich, Germany

  2. 3

    Department of Earth Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5, Canada

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa

  2. 2

    Institut für Allgemeine und Angewandte Geologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Luisenstrasse 37, D-80333 Munich, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 MAR 2009
  2. Published Print: 18 FEB 2002

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780632064151

Online ISBN: 9781444304312

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Keywords:

  • palaeoproterozoic epeiric sea palaeoenvironments - Silverton formation (pretoria Group, Transvaal Supergroup), South Africa;
  • epeiric seas - general concepts;
  • general geology of transvaal supergroup;
  • geology of Silverton formation;
  • arenaceous lithofacies association;
  • palaeoproterozoic Silverton epeiric sea;
  • argillaceous lithofacies association

Summary

A predominant argillaceous lithofacies association in the Early Proterozoic Silverton Formation (Pretoria Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa) comprises massive mudstones, laminated claystones, laminated siltstones, graded mudstones and graded siltstones. These fine-grained rocks are interpreted as having been laid down as substorm wave-base pelagic deposits within an epeiric embayment. Fine fluvial detritus was able to by-pass a high-energy sand belt and coastline setting (represented by the Magaliesberg Formation, above the Silverton rocks) owing to fluvial flood stages and a high concentration of suspended sediment. High-amplitude storm waves resulted in subordinate graded coarse siltstone and fine sandstone beds being laid down within the transitional zone and offshore mud belt of the shallow epeiric palaeoenvironment. The model proposed for the Silverton Formation is comparable to the classic Shaw–Irwin epeiric sea model, with the exception that a strongly tidal coastline was present. With the initial onset of the Silverton transgression, fluvial sandstones of the underlying Daspoort Formation were reworked in the east of the basin. Approximately coeval lower Silverton braid-deltaic sandstones in the west of the basin were rapidly drowned, to be followed initially by turbidity current sediments, and subsequently by the predominant mudrocks, deposited as transgressive and subsequent highstand systems tracts. Regressive, tidally reworked braid-delta sandstones of the Magaliesberg Formation accompanied retreat of the Silverton epeiric embayment off the Kaapvaal craton, as freeboard of the latter became thermally enhanced.