Sediments and Landforms in an Upland Glaciated-Valley Landsystem: Upper Ennerdale, English Lake District

  1. Michael J. Hambrey2,
  2. Poul Christoffersen2,3,
  3. Neil F. Glasser2 and
  4. Bryn Hubbard2
  1. David J. Graham1 and
  2. Michael J. Hambrey2

Published Online: 24 MAR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444304435.ch14

Glacial Sedimentary Processes and Products

Glacial Sedimentary Processes and Products

How to Cite

Graham, D. J. and Hambrey, M. J. (2007) Sediments and Landforms in an Upland Glaciated-Valley Landsystem: Upper Ennerdale, English Lake District, in Glacial Sedimentary Processes and Products (eds M. J. Hambrey, P. Christoffersen, N. F. Glasser and B. Hubbard), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444304435.ch14

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Centre for Glaciology, Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales, Ceredigion SY23 3DB, UK

  2. 3

    Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1ER, UK

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK

  2. 2

    Centre for Glaciology, Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales, Ceredigion SY23 3DB, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 24 MAR 2009
  2. Published Print: 14 DEC 2007

Book Series:

  1. Special Publication Number 39 of the International Association of Sedimentologists

Book Series Editors:

  1. Isabel Montanez

Series Editor Information

  1. University of California, Davis, USA

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405183000

Online ISBN: 9781444304435

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Keywords:

  • sediments and landforms in upland glaciated-valley landsystem - upper Ennerdale, English Lake District;
  • genesis of moraines associated with British glaciers of Younger Dryas age;
  • suite of landforms and sediments at glacier margins varying in thermal regime, relief and tectonic setting;
  • changing interpretations of British moraine mound complexes;
  • geomorphological map of upper Ennerdale showing distribution of key sediment-landform associations and locations of clast and matrix samples;
  • sediment-landform associations;
  • subdued, ridges running obliquely down south-west facing slope of Tongue;
  • active ice-margin recession;
  • englacial thrusting - valid mechanism of landform genesis

Summary

The genesis of moraines associated with British glaciers of Younger Dryas age has proved controversial in recent years. A number of alternative hypotheses exist and, whilst it is generally accepted that such features are polygenetic in origin, some workers have argued that not all of the proposed mechanisms are valid. This paper seeks to explore these issues, using a case study from the English Lake District. A landsystems approach is adopted, integrating information at a variety of spatial scales to explain the development of the sediment-landform associations in upper Ennerdale. The evidence suggests that landform development resulted from a combination of ice-marginal deposition and englacial thrusting. It is probable that thrusting resulted from flow compression against a reverse bedrock slope, combined with the confluence of ice from two separate source areas. It is argued that, whilst englacial thrust moraines may not be commonly associated with British Younger Dryas glaciers, under certain conditions englacial thrusting is an important process in landform development.