Carbonate Cementation in Sandstones: Distribution Patterns and Geochemical Evolution

  1. Sadoon Morad
  1. S. Morad

Published Online: 17 APR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444304893.ch1

Carbonate Cementation in Sandstones: Distribution Patterns and Geochemical Evolution

Carbonate Cementation in Sandstones: Distribution Patterns and Geochemical Evolution

How to Cite

Morad, S. (1998) Carbonate Cementation in Sandstones: Distribution Patterns and Geochemical Evolution, in Carbonate Cementation in Sandstones: Distribution Patterns and Geochemical Evolution (ed S. Morad), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444304893.ch1

Author Information

  1. Sedimentary Geology Research Group, Institute of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 APR 2009
  2. Published Print: 29 MAY 1998

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780632047772

Online ISBN: 9781444304893

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • carbonate cementation in sandstones – distribution patterns and geochemical evolution;
  • oxic carbonates;
  • bacterial sulphate reduction carbonates;
  • suboxic carbonates;
  • facies-related distribution carbonate cements;
  • marine calcite and dolomite;
  • pore water in oxic zone

Summary

Carbonate cements in sandstones are dominated by calcite, dolomite, ankerite and siderite, whereas magnesite and rhodochrosite are rare. The distribution patterns, mineralogy and elemental/isotopic compositions of carbonate cements vary widely, both temporally and spatially. The most important factors controlling these parameters during near-surface eodiagenesis include the depositional setting (e.g. rate of deposition, pore water composition, hydrogeology, climate, latitude and sea-level fluctuation), the organic matter content and the texture and detrital composition of the host sediments. During burial (mesodiagenesis) the important controlling factors include the temperature, residence time, chemistry and flow rates/pattern of subsurface waters, and the distribution patterns of eogenetic carbonate cements. As a result of mass balance constraints, burial carbonates are thought to be formed by the dissolution—reprecipitation (i.e. redistribution) of eogenetic carbonate cements and detrital carbonates. However, cements may also be derived internally from the dissolution of carbonate bioclasts, volcaniclastic material and calcium plagioclase, or externally from associated carbonate rocks, evaporites and mudstones. During uplift and erosion, carbonate cements are subjected to telogenetic alteration and dissolution. The imprints of eogenetic, mesogenetic and telogenetic conditions might be unequivocally reflected in the mineralogy and geochemistry of carbonate cements. However, eogenetic carbonates, particularly calcite and dolomite, may be subjected to recrystallization and resetting of isotopic signatures, fluid inclusion thermometrics and elemental compositions.