Chapter 5. Stage R0: The Normal Eye

  1. Peter H. Scanlon MD, MRCOphth, DCH, FRCP Consultant Ophthalmologist Lecturer1,
  2. Charles P. Wilkinson MD Chairman Professor of Ophthalmology2,
  3. Stephen J. Aldington DMS, FBIPP Gloucestershire Education and Research Development Manager3 and
  4. David R. Matthews MA (Oxon), DPhil, BM, BCh, FRCP Professor Chairman4

Published Online: 17 MAR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444308174.ch5

A Practical Manual of Diabetic Retinopathy Management

A Practical Manual of Diabetic Retinopathy Management

How to Cite

Scanlon, P. H., Wilkinson, C. P., Aldington, S. J. and Matthews, D. R. (2009) Stage R0: The Normal Eye, in A Practical Manual of Diabetic Retinopathy Management, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444308174.ch5

Author Information

  1. 1

    Gloucestershire and Oxford Eye Units, Harris Manchester College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

  2. 2

    Department of Ophthalmology, Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA

  3. 3

    Cheltenham, UK

  4. 4

    University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Oxford, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 MAR 2009
  2. Published Print: 27 MAR 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405170352

Online ISBN: 9781444308174



  • Stage R0 - normal eye;
  • basic retinal appearance on examination of left macula;
  • photographic appearance;
  • nerve fibre layer patterns;
  • fluorescein angiography;
  • fluorescein principles and techniques;
  • normal fluorescein appearance;
  • abnormal fluorescein distribution;
  • normal OCT appearance - Optical coherence tomography (OCT);
  • electroretinography


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • The Relevant Anatomy of the Eye

  • The Photographic Appearance

  • Fluorescein Angiography

  • Normal OCT Appearance

  • Electroretinography

  • Practice Point

  • References