Chapter 4. Jesus and Challenges to Christian Orthodoxy (Since the Fifteenth Century)

  1. W. Barnes Tatum

Published Online: 28 MAY 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9781444311044.ch4

Jesus: A Brief History

Jesus: A Brief History

How to Cite

Tatum, W. B. (2009) Jesus and Challenges to Christian Orthodoxy (Since the Fifteenth Century), in Jesus: A Brief History, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444311044.ch4

Author Information

  1. Jefferson-Pilot Professor of Religion and Philosophy, Greensboro College, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 MAY 2009
  2. Published Print: 17 APR 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405170192

Online ISBN: 9781444311044



  • Jesus and challenges to Christian Orthodoxy;
  • Renaissance, traditional Trinitarian understanding of Jesus as the Christ;
  • development of historical criticism, associating with Italian humanist Lorenzo Valla (1407–57);
  • Protestantism, differentiating from the Catholic Church and papal;
  • Romans 1:16–17, representing core teaching of the Bible;
  • sixteenth-century English Reformation, interpreting Jesus as the Christ through Thirty-Nine Articles;
  • Peace of Westphalia, ending the Thirty Years War;
  • Reformation period, witnessing beginnings of modern sciences;
  • Lutherans in Germany, publishing The Book of Concord in 1580;
  • sixteenth century, witness printing of Bibles


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • The Renaissance: Back to the Classics

  • The Reformation: Back to the Bible

  • The Enlightenment: Not Revelation, but Reason

  • Material Culture: Architecture, Visual Arts, and Printed Books