Chapter 25. Long-Term Implications for the Baby of the Hyperglycemic Mother

  1. David R. McCance BSc, MD, FRCP, DCH Consultant Physician Honorary Professor2,
  2. Michael Maresh MD, FRCOG Consultant Obstetrician3 and
  3. David A. Sacks MD Adjunct Investigator Clinical Professor4,5
  1. David J. Pettitt MD Senior Scientist

Published Online: 10 MAR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444315196.ch25

A Practical Manual of Diabetes in Pregnancy

A Practical Manual of Diabetes in Pregnancy

How to Cite

Pettitt, D. J. (2010) Long-Term Implications for the Baby of the Hyperglycemic Mother, in A Practical Manual of Diabetes in Pregnancy (eds D. R. McCance, M. Maresh and D. A. Sacks), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444315196.ch25

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Regional Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK

  2. 3

    St Mary's Hospital for Women, Manchester, UK

  3. 4

    Department of Research, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Pasadena, California, USA

  4. 5

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA

Author Information

  1. Sansum Diabetes Research Institute, Santa Barbara, California, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 10 MAR 2010
  2. Published Print: 31 MAR 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405179041

Online ISBN: 9781444315196



  • Gestational diabetes mellitus;
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus;
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus;
  • MODY diabetes;
  • diabetes in pregnancy;
  • offspring;
  • Type 2 diabetes in youth;
  • childhood obesity


Offspring of women with diabetes mellitus during pregnancy face a lifetime of risk not experienced by those who were not exposed to the diabetic intrauterine environment. In this chapter, human studies that have examined children and young adults whose mothers had diabetes during pregnancy are reviewed and the results are summarized. Offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes (GDM) or maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) during pregnancy are at a high risk for becoming obese during childhood and for developing diabetes or GDM by the time they reach childbearing age. This vicious cycle of diabetes in pregnancy, which places the child him/herself at risk of developing diabetes in pregnancy, is augmented by other risk factors for diabetes in the population. Diabetic pregnancy has long-lasting effects on the offspring that account for much of the current increase in the rates of obesity and youth-onset Type 2 diabetes