Chapter 17. Consequences of Antifouling Systems – An Environmental Perspective

  1. Simone Dürr3 and
  2. Jeremy C. Thomason4
  1. Cato C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes1 and
  2. Simon Walmsley2

Published Online: 29 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444315462.ch17



How to Cite

Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, C. C. and Walmsley, S. (2009) Consequences of Antifouling Systems – An Environmental Perspective, in Biofouling (eds S. Dürr and J. C. Thomason), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444315462.ch17

Editor Information

  1. 3

    School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK

  2. 4

    School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK

Author Information

  1. 1

    Oosterweg 1, 9995 VJ Kantens, The Netherlands

  2. 2

    4 Farnham Park, Drive, Upper Hale Farnham, Surrey, GU9 0HS, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 29 JAN 2010
  2. Published Print: 18 DEC 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405169264

Online ISBN: 9781444315462



  • consequences of antifouling systems;
  • environmental impact knowledge about AFS - severe ecotoxicity of TBT;
  • TBT - organotin and main alternative AFS for shipping;
  • AFS ecotoxicity;
  • sedimentary distribution of contaminants and microbial biodegradation - quality of sediment organic matter (SOM);
  • salinity - affecting metal toxicity;
  • sensory–behavioural effects


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Antifouling Systems

  • Tributyltin – Behaviour and Fate in Natural Systems

  • Environmental Risks Associated with AFS and Alternative AFS

  • AFS Ecotoxicity

  • AFS in the Presence of Other Contaminants

  • Sensory–Behavioural Effects

  • Conclusions

  • References