Chapter 5. Patterns of Fouling on a Global Scale

  1. Simone Dürr2 and
  2. Jeremy C. Thomason3
  1. João Canning-Clode and
  2. Martin Wahl

Published Online: 29 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444315462.ch5



How to Cite

Canning-Clode, J. and Wahl, M. (2009) Patterns of Fouling on a Global Scale, in Biofouling (eds S. Dürr and J. C. Thomason), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444315462.ch5

Editor Information

  1. 2

    School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK

  2. 3

    School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK

Author Information

  1. IFM-GEOMAR – Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 29 JAN 2010
  2. Published Print: 18 DEC 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405169264

Online ISBN: 9781444315462



  • patterns of fouling on a global scale;
  • species–area hypothesis - relationship, proposing larger areas holding more species;
  • global approach by modular experiment (GAME) project;
  • diversity in local communities - regulated by local and regional processes;
  • local processes - predation, competition and disturbance;
  • regional processes - migration, speciation, extinction and historical events;
  • ecological limitation;
  • introduction of non-native species in marine realm;
  • latitudinal gradient and relationship between local and regional species richness;
  • species transported in ballast water of vessels - major source of invaders


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Background

  • Is There a Latitudinal Cline in Fouling Organisms?

  • The Pattern Revealed by a Global Modular Fouling Experiment

  • Are Biofouling Communities Saturated? The Relationship

  • Between Local and Regional Diversity

  • Discussion and Future Perspectives

  • Conclusions

  • Acknowledgements

  • References