Chapter 6. Biofouling Patterns with Depth

  1. Simone Dürr2 and
  2. Jeremy C. Thomason3
  1. Phillip R. Cowie

Published Online: 29 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444315462.ch6



How to Cite

Cowie, P. R. (2009) Biofouling Patterns with Depth, in Biofouling (eds S. Dürr and J. C. Thomason), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444315462.ch6

Editor Information

  1. 2

    School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK

  2. 3

    School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK

Author Information

  1. University of London Marine Biological Station, Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, KA28 OEG, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 29 JAN 2010
  2. Published Print: 18 DEC 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405169264

Online ISBN: 9781444315462



  • biofouling patterns with depth;
  • sub-littoral man-made hardmaterials - metals, plastics, modified concrete, pipelines and cables;
  • light availability - determining proportion of photosynthetic algae;
  • vertical zonation - arrangement of communities in belts;
  • man-made structures associated with oil and gas industries;
  • ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) - heat exchangers;
  • suspension-feeders - gorgonians, black corals, antipatharians, sponges, ascidians and hydroids;
  • infralittoral zone;
  • biofouling communities - fuelled by photosynthetic organisms


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Major Forcing Factors Determining Subtidal Sessile Assemblages

  • Patterns of Vertical Zonation on Natural Substratum Subtidal Communities

  • Patterns of Vertical Zonation in Biofouling Communities on

  • Man-made Structures

  • Conclusions

  • References