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Itemized Rating Scales (Likert, Semantic Differential, and Stapel)

Part 2. Marketing Research

  1. Gary J. Russell

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444316568.wiem02011

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

How to Cite

Russell, G. J. 2010. Itemized Rating Scales (Likert, Semantic Differential, and Stapel). Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing. 2.

Author Information

  1. University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

Abstract

Itemized rating scales are ordinal scales used to measure consumer attitudes such as attribute perceptions, product preferences, purchase intentions, and service satisfaction. Three types of scales are commonly used in marketing research: Likert, semantic differential, and Stapel. Likert scales ask consumers to agree or disagree to declarative statements. Semantic differential and Stapel scales ask consumers to rate entities along an ordered continuum. Attitude scales in marketing research are usually created as multiitem scales, which are analyzed using regression and factor analytic methodologies to examine reliability and validity. Newer analysis methods based upon latent variable models assume that itemized rating scales only have ordinal measurement properties, but allow the development of continuous measures of consumer attitude.

Keywords:

  • Likert scale;
  • semantic differential;
  • Stapel scale;
  • reliability;
  • validity;
  • multitrait–multimethod matrix;
  • factor analysis;
  • latent trait theory