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Common Methods Bias

Part 2. Marketing Research

  1. Wagner A. Kamakura

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444316568.wiem02033

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

How to Cite

Kamakura, W. A. 2010. Common Methods Bias. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing. 2.

Author Information

  1. Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


Common methods bias is a well-documented phenomenon observed in research based on self-reported measures. The fact that multiple constructs are measured using common methods (e.g., multiple-item scales presented within the same survey) leads to spurious effects due to the measurement instruments rather than to the constructs being measured. For example, the fact that subjects are asked to report their own perceptions or impressions on two or more constructs in the same survey is likely to produce spurious correlations among the items measuring these constructs owing to response styles, social desirability, priming effects which are independent from the true correlations among the constructs being measured. The most common approach for assessing and controlling for common methods bias is to conduct a multitrait–multimethod study, which requires that the same subjects are measured on multiple constructs using multiple methods or instruments.


  • survey research;
  • measurement error;
  • common methods variance;
  • social desirability;
  • hallo effect