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Repeated Measures ANOVA

Part 2. Marketing Research

  1. Mayukh Dass

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444316568.wiem02070

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

How to Cite

Dass, M. 2010. Repeated Measures ANOVA. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing. 2.

Author Information

  1. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


In marketing research, one of the sources of variability in the observed measures is the respondents themselves. The respondents come from different backgrounds and have unique individual characteristics, and thus can perceive a study differently. Since this sample level variability reduces the effectiveness of the study, it is very important to separate it from the treatment effects and the experimental errors. Unfortunately, these differences among subjects are uncontrolled and are treated as errors in a between-subject design. Therefore, we use a within-subject design where the respondents are exposed to more than one treatment condition and hence repeated measures are obtained. Such repeated measures are also necessary in longitudinal studies where respondents are measured at different time periods and in cases where it is difficult to recruit respondents. Traditional analysis of variance (ANOVA) is not adequate to analyze this type of data as it is unable to control the correlation among the repeated measures. Therefore, a different analysis called repeated measures ANOVA is used. Repeated measures ANOVA is also considered as an extension of a paired-sample t-test to a case of more than two related samples.


  • sample level variability;
  • repeated measures;
  • within-subject design;
  • analysis of variance;
  • paired-sample t-test