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Opportunities and Challenges in Social Marketing

Part 3. Consumer Behavior

  1. Alan R. Andreasen

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444316568.wiem03049

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

How to Cite

Andreasen, A. R. 2010. Opportunities and Challenges in Social Marketing. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing. 3.

Author Information

  1. Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


Social marketing had dual origins in the late 1960s – real world family planning applications on the practical side and intellectual ferment in the “broadening” academic movement emanating from the Northwestern marketing group. The decades since have seen ever-widening applications, rethinking of fundamental propositions and a recognition that downstream targets – those exhibiting problematic behaviors – often need opportunities and abilities to act. The latter require attention to what are termed upstream targets of social marketing campaigns. The mainstreaming of social marketing in recent years has yielded a range of consumer research insights but has provoked rethinking of fundamental definitions of marketing that would be applicable across social and commercial settings. Several fundamental and practical research issues at the macro- and microlevels should occupy the field's attention in coming years.


  • social marketing;
  • target audience research;
  • intentions;
  • social norms;
  • upstream targets;
  • stages of change;
  • behavioral economics