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Part 3. Consumer Behavior

  1. Julie A. Ruth

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444316568.wiem03059

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

How to Cite

Ruth, J. A. 2010. Emotion. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing. 3.

Author Information

  1. Rutgers University, Camden, NJ, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


Emotions are subjective feeling states that are associated with appraisals the consumer makes about a consumption situation. Emotions – including discrete emotions such as pride, or mixed emotions such as the experience of fear, joy, regret, and excitement – arise within many domains of consumer activity. With respect to advertising, upbeat, negative, and warm ad-evoked emotional responses influence the formation of consumers' ad and brand attitudes. Consumer responses to emotional appeals sometimes produce an inverted U-shaped pattern of effects, where consumer attitudes are more favorable under moderate compared to low or high levels of the elicited emotion. Regarding decision making, the extent to which a consumer decision maker relies on emotions depends on their heuristic value, representativeness, and relevance. Purchase and service delivery situations, especially negative ones, also elicit emotions with which consumers attempt to cope in a variety of problem- or emotion-focused ways, depending on the emotion and accompanying appraisals. The emotions consumers experience are also influenced by interactions with, and the noninteractive presence of, other people in purchase, service delivery, and other consumption settings, such as gift exchange. Emotions are both affected and influenced by consumers' relationships with family, acquaintances, and service providers.


  • feelings;
  • appraisals;
  • coping;
  • goals;
  • emotional appeals;
  • ambivalence;
  • mixed emotions