Standard Article

You have free access to this content

“Country of Origin” as Brand Element

Part 6. International Marketing

  1. Adamantios Diamantopoulos1,
  2. Katharina Petra Zeugner-Roth2

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444316568.wiem06004

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

How to Cite

Diamantopoulos, A. and Zeugner-Roth, K. P. 2010. “Country of Origin” as Brand Element. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing. 6.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

  2. 2

    Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Gent, Belgium

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


During the past 40 years, the country-of-origin (CoO) effect, or the impact that cognitive, affective, and normative associations with a particular country have on product evaluations and purchase intentions, has been one of the most heavily researched areas in international marketing. At the same time, CoO research has been strongly criticized with some researchers questioning whether a CoO effect even exists. This article first provides a conceptual background to CoO effects, followed by a summary of key findings focusing in particular on CoO as brand element. Finally, recent criticism on the relevance of CoO research is discussed and its implications for future study on this topic are evaluated.


  • country of origin;
  • country image;
  • country brand equity;
  • country personality;
  • multi-cue studies;
  • product ethnicity;
  • brand equity;
  • global branding;
  • relevance;
  • country knowledge;
  • brand-origin recognition accuracy