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International Negotiations

Part 6. International Marketing

  1. Bruce Money

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444316568.wiem06041

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

How to Cite

Money, B. 2010. International Negotiations. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing. 6.

Author Information

  1. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


Basic to negotiation are issues such as anchoring (who makes the first offer) and making concessions. Various models have been forwarded, including the framework of bargainer characteristics and situational factors affecting the process, which in turn, affects the outcome. Regarding international negotiations, various issues complicate this or any model, in dealing with, for example, language differences, perception of time, and simply what people in other countries consider to be good negotiation. National culture as a situational factor, dramatically affects the process. The article highlights two of the most prominent frameworks, Hofstede's five dimensions (subject to the well-placed and ongoing debate about applying group-based measures to individual levels of behavior, the so-called “ecological fallacy”) and the Halls' construct of context, or the amount of “code” implicit in a particular national culture. Finally, other issues (such as societal and governmental factors) which may impact international negotiation are explored.


  • negotiation framework;
  • national culture;
  • Hofstede;
  • Hall's context;
  • process