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Consumer Animosity

Part 6. International Marketing

  1. Jill Gabrielle Klein

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444316568.wiem06045

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing

How to Cite

Klein, J. G. 2010. Consumer Animosity. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing. 6.

Author Information

  1. Melbourne Business School, Carlton, Victoria, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


The animosity model of foreign product purchase demonstrates that animosity, defined as the remnants of antipathy toward another country due to past military, political, or economic conflicts, affects the buying of foreign goods. Numerous studies have been conducted on consumer animosity since the introduction of the model to the literature in 1998. The context of the first study was Nanjing, China, a city that was the site of the horrific slaughter of approximately 300,000 civilians by the Japanese in December 1937 and January 1938. Survey research demonstrated that Nanjing consumers who were still angry with Japan because of the massacre were less willing to buy Japanese goods, and actually owned fewer Japanese electronic and durable products. Interestingly, angry consumers did not denigrate the quality of Japanese products. They acknowledged the good workmanship, reliability, and technological advancement of Japanese products, but they still refused to buy them. Subsequent demonstrations of the effects of consumer animosity have shown wide generality of the model across the globe.


  • international marketing;
  • consumer animosity;
  • country-of-origin;
  • foreign product purchase